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This process of anglicisation paused when evangelical preachers arrived in the Highlands, convinced that people should be able to read religious texts in their own language.
Other publications followed, with a full Gaelic Bible in The influential and effective Gaelic Schools Society was founded in Their purpose was to teach Gaels to read the Bible in their own language.
Counterintuitively, access to schooling in Gaelic increased knowledge of English. In the Gaelic Schools Society reported that parents were unconcerned about their children learning Gaelic, but were anxious to have them taught English.
In , an observer sympathetic to Gaelic stated that "knowledge of English is indispensable to any poor islander who wishes to learn a trade or to earn his bread beyond the limits of his native Isle".
Generally, rather than Gaelic speakers, it was Celtic societies in the cities and professors of Celtic from universities who sought to preserve the language.
The Education Scotland Act provided universal education in Scotland, but completely ignored Gaelic in its plans. The mechanism for supporting Gaelic through the Education Codes issued by the Scottish Education Department were steadily used to overcome this omission, with many concessions in place by However, the members of Highland school boards tended to have anti-Gaelic attitudes and served as an obstacle to Gaelic education in the late 19th and early 20th century.
Dialects of Lowland Gaelic have been defunct since the 18th century. Gaelic in the Eastern and Southern Scottish Highlands, although alive in the midth century, is now largely defunct.
Although modern Scottish Gaelic is dominated by the dialects of the Outer Hebrides and Isle of Skye, there remain some speakers of the Inner Hebridean dialects of Tiree and Islay, and even a few native speakers from Highland areas including Wester Ross, northwest Sutherland, Lochaber, and Argyll.
Dialects on both sides of the Straits of Moyle the North Channel linking Scottish Gaelic with Irish are now extinct, though native speakers were still to be found on the Mull of Kintyre , on Rathlin and in North East Ireland as late as the midth century.
Records of their speech show that Irish and Scottish Gaelic existed in a dialect chain with no clear language boundary.
The Endangered Languages Project lists Gaelic's status as "threatened", with "20, to 30, active users".
The — figures are census data quoted by MacAulay. The total population figure comes from table KSSC. Note that the numbers of Gaelic speakers relate to the numbers aged 3 and over, and the percentages are calculated using those and the number of the total population aged 3 and over.
The main stronghold of the language continues to be the Outer Hebrides Na h-Eileanan Siar , where the overall proportion of speakers is Important pockets of the language also exist in the Highlands 5.
Gaelic continues to decline in its traditional heartland. The drop in Stornoway , the largest parish in the Western Isles by population, was especially acute, from The islands in the Inner Hebrides with significant percentages of Gaelic speakers are Tiree Between the and censuses, the number of Gaelic speakers rose in nineteen of the country's 32 council areas.
During the same period, Gaelic medium education in Scotland has grown, with 4, pupils 6. Gaelic has long suffered from its lack of use in educational and administrative contexts and was long suppressed.
Gaelic, along with Irish and Welsh, is designated under Part III of the Charter, which requires the UK Government to take a range of concrete measures in the fields of education, justice, public administration, broadcasting and culture.
It has not received the same degree of official recognition from the UK Government as Welsh. With the advent of devolution , however, Scottish matters have begun to receive greater attention, and it achieved a degree of official recognition when the Gaelic Language Scotland Act was enacted by the Scottish Parliament on 21 April The key provisions of the Act are: .
In the committee stages in the Scottish Parliament, there was much debate over whether Gaelic should be given 'equal validity' with English.
Due to executive concerns about resourcing implications if this wording was used, the Education Committee settled on the concept of 'equal respect'.
It is not clear what the legal force of this wording is. The Act was passed by the Scottish Parliament unanimously, with support from all sectors of the Scottish political spectrum, on 21 April Under the provisions of the Act, it will ultimately fall to BnG to secure the status of the Gaelic language as an official language of Scotland.
However, given there are no longer any monolingual Gaelic speakers,  following an appeal in the court case of Taylor v Haughney , involving the status of Gaelic in judicial proceedings, the High Court ruled against a general right to use Gaelic in court proceedings.
The Scottish Qualifications Authority offer two streams of Gaelic examination across all levels of the syllabus: Gaelic for learners equivalent to the modern foreign languages syllabus and Gaelic for native speakers equivalent to the English syllabus.
Syllabus details are available on An Comunn's website. These are not widely recognised as qualifications, but are required for those taking part in certain competitions at the annual mods.
In October , a new agreement was made which allows Scottish Gaelic to be used formally between Scottish Government ministers and European Union officials.
This does not give Scottish Gaelic official status in the EU, but gives it the right to be a means of formal communications in the EU's institutions.
The Scottish government will have to pay for the translation from Gaelic to other European languages. He said that "Allowing Gaelic speakers to communicate with European institutions in their mother tongue is a progressive step forward and one which should be welcomed".
Culture Minister Mike Russell said that "this is a significant step forward for the recognition of Gaelic both at home and abroad and I look forward to addressing the council in Gaelic very soon.
Seeing Gaelic spoken in such a forum raises the profile of the language as we drive forward our commitment to creating a new generation of Gaelic speakers in Scotland.
Bilingual road signs, street names, business and advertisement signage in both Gaelic and English are gradually being introduced throughout Gaelic-speaking regions in the Highlands and Islands, including Argyll.
Bilingual railway station signs are now more frequent than they used to be. Practically all the stations in the Highland area use both English and Gaelic, and the spread of bilingual station signs is becoming ever more frequent in the Lowlands of Scotland, including areas where Gaelic has not been spoken for a long time.
This has been welcomed by many supporters of the language as a means of raising its profile as well as securing its future as a 'living language' i.
However, in some places, such as Caithness, the Highland Council's intention to introduce bilingual signage has incited controversy.
The Ordnance Survey has acted in recent years to correct many of the mistakes that appear on maps. They announced in that they intended to correct them and set up a committee to determine the correct forms of Gaelic place names for their maps.
In the nineteenth century, Canadian Gaelic was the third-most widely spoken European language in British North America  and Gaelic-speaking immigrant communities could be found throughout what is modern-day Canada.
Gaelic poets in Canada produced a significant literary tradition. At the start of the 21st century, it was estimated that no more than people in Nova Scotia still spoke Scottish Gaelic as a first language.
In the census, people claimed to have Gaelic as their first language a figure that may include Irish Gaelic. In , the Nova Scotia government launched a new Gaelic vehicle license plate to raise awareness of the language and help fund Gaelic language and culture initiatives.
In Prince Edward Island , the Colonel Gray High School now offers both an introductory and an advanced course in Gaelic; both language and history are taught in these classes.
It also broadcasts across Europe on the Astra 2 satellites. There are also television programmes in the language on other BBC channels and on the independent commercial channels , usually subtitled in English.
The Education Scotland Act , which completely ignored Gaelic, and led to generations of Gaels being forbidden to speak their native language in the classroom, is now recognised as having dealt a major blow to the language.
Am Faclair Beag. Michael Bauer and Will Robertson. Retrieved 15 January Connachta incl. Celtic languages.
Irish medium education Gaelic medium education Manx medium education Welsh medium education Breton medium education Cornish medium nursery.
Proto-Celtic Proto-Brittonic. Italics indicate extinct or ancestor languages. Breton nationalism history Cornish nationalism Welsh nationalism Scottish nationalism Irish nationalism incl.
Republicanism Manx nationalism. Scottish Travellers. Media Category Templates WikiProject. Categories : Goidelic languages Celtic languages.
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Irish Scottish Gaelic Manx. Over-regional  : Ciamar a tha thu? Munster: Cad is ainm duit? West coast mainland  : C' ainm a tha ort?
Look up Goidelic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. De Ni Mi And Puirt. Canan nan Gaidheal. The Rankin Family.
Ailein Duinn. The Lord's Prayer. Ar n-Athair. Kathleen MacInnes. Tuomas Holopainen. Glasgow Cearcall a' Chuain.
Murdo MacLeod Precentor. Salm XXX rainn Archived from the original on 1 June Archived from the original on 26 June Retrieved 23 August Gaelic games.
County Stadiums and Venues. Football Hurling Handball Rounders. Camogie Football. Clubs Ireland Elsewhere Competitions. Glossary of terms. Alasdair mac Mhaighstir Alasdair c.
The Irish uncial alphabet originated in medieval manuscripts as an "insular" variant of the Latin alphabet. The first Gaelic typeface was designed in for a catechism commissioned by Elizabeth I to help attempt to convert the Irish Catholic population to Anglicanism.
Typesetting in Gaelic script remained common in Ireland until the midth century. Gaelic script is today used merely for decorative typesetting; for example, a number of traditional Irish newspapers still print their name in Gaelic script on the first page, and it is also popular for pub signs, greeting cards, and display advertising.
The logo consists of a modern take on the Gaelic type face. The R's counter is large with a short tail, the T is roman script while the E is curved but does not have a counter like a lower case E, and the letters also have slight serifs to them.
TG4 's original logo, under the brand TnaG , also used a modernization of the font, the use of the curved T and a sans-serif A in the word na.
The logo more strongly shows the more widely used acronym GAA but taking a closer look a C joins with an L and then to a G lying down.
Unicode treats the Gaelic script as a font variant of the Latin alphabet. Unicode 5. Gaelic script used on an information plaque outside City Hall , near Dublin Castle.